The House of Representatives, or Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer) is composed of 150 seats elected by proportional representation in a single nationwide constituency, with a de facto threshold of 0.67%, and residuals assigned by the D’Hondt method. Electronic voting has been banned since 2007 and votes must be cast with a red pencil. Following reports from the General Intelligence and Security Service (AIVD) that Russian hacking groups Fancy Bear and Cozy Bear had made several attempts to hack into Dutch ministries, including the Ministry of General Affairs, to gain access to secret government documents, Dutch Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations Ronald Plasterk announced that votes for the election would be processed by hand, although that decision was later reversed. Preliminary results were published on 15 March, but the official result will not be announced until 16:00 CET on 21 March. The polling firm Ipsos released an exit poll as soon as polls closed, which indicated that the VVD won 31 seats, the CDA, D66, and PVV each won 19 seats, GroenLinks won 16, SP won 14, PvdA won 9, CU won 6, PvdD won 5, 50PLUS won 4, DENK and SGP each won 3, and FvD won 2. The exit poll also recorded a turnout of 82%, which would be the highest since 1981 if confirmed. The elections are also seen as an indication of interest in the Dutch political system in the Caribbean Netherlands, with low turnout in the 2012 election.